Transformasi Teks Dari Pancatantra India Ke Tantri Kamandaka Jawa Kuno: Telaah Sastra Bandingan

Ambar Andayani(1*),

(1) Program Studi Sastra Inggris, Fakultas Sastra, Universitas 17 Agustus 1945 (UNTAG), Jalan Semolowaru 45 Surabaya
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Motif cerita Tantri Kamandaka Jawa Kuno memiliki banyak kesamaan dengan Pancatantra India. Akan tetapi, jenis transformasi teks dari Pancatantra ke Tantri menunjukkan perubahan, baik ekserp, modifikasi, maupun ekspansi. Perbandingan warna lokal keduanya menunjukkan perbedaan. Pancatantra dicoraki ajaran Hindu dan Budha, sedangkan Tantri Kamandaka lebih diwarnai Hindu-Shiwa dan Tantrisme. Pancatantra lebih memuliakan Dewi Laksmi (ćakti Wishnu), sedangkan Tantri Kamandaka lebih mensakralkan Batari Uma (ćakti Shiwa). Pancatantra lebih menekankan pesan moral Karmaphala Hindu (perbuatan baik menghasilkan kebaikan, perbuatan buruk menghasilkan keburukan), sedangkan Tantri Kamandaka lebih menekankan Karma Budha (nilai suatu perbuatan bergantung pada niat pelakunya). Pancatantra mengajarkan Dharma Hindu bahwa tiap manusia mempunyai hak dan kewajiban sesuai dengan status kasta, sedangkan Tantri Kamandaka mengajarkan Kaladesa bahwa setiap tindakan harus menyesuaikan kondisi tempat dan waktu (empan papan).

Abstract:
The motifs of Old Javanese Tantri Kamandaka and Indian Pancatantra stories have so much in common. The texts of Pancatantra and Tantri Kamandaka however show types of transformation: excerpt, modification and expansion. The comparison of local color from both of them indicates differences. Pancatantra contains the lessons of Hindu and Buddha, while Tantri Kamandaka is colored more with Hindu-Siva and Tantrism. Dewi Laksmi is more respected in Pancatantra and Batari Uma (ćakti Shiwa) is more sacred in Tantri Kamandaka. Pancatantra more emphasizes on the moral value of Hindu Karmaphala (good deed results good, bad deed results bad), while Tantri Kamandaka more emphasizes on Buddha Karma (the value od deed depends on the will of the doer). Pancatantra educates Hindu Dharma that every human has right and duty depends on his caste status, and Tantri Kamandaka teaches Kaladesa that every conduct has to adapt with condition of the place and time (empan papan).

Key Words: comparative literature, story motif, textual transformation, Tantrism, Kaladesa

Keywords


motif cerita; transformasi teks; sastra bandingan; Tantrisme; Kaladesa

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.24257/atavisme.v14i2.65.138-155

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