Marginalisasi dan Revitalisasi Parikan di Era Kelisanan Sekunder

D. Jupriono(1*),

(1) Fakultas Sastra, Universitas 17 Agustus 1945 Surabaya
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Sastra lisan parikan termarginalisasikan dari masyarakatnya di Jawa Timur dan Jawa Tengah karena: makin langkanya habitat tempat munculnya parikan (ludruk, tayub, dll.); melimpahnya acara pop di media elektronik TV; punahnya budaya sindiran; tergusurnya lembah lokalisasi; makin berkurangnya jumlah penjual jamu di pasar tradisional dan para pedagang keliling berlayar tancap; lenyapnya budaya cangkrukan/jagongan. Meskipun demikian, ada dua komunitas yang tetap melestarikan parikan, yaitu komunitas pesantren, yang tetap mempertahankan parikan sebagai produk kelisanan primer, dan masyarakat Jawa pedesaan serta komunitas urban etnis Jawa, yang melestarikan parikan sebagai produk kelisanan sekunder dalam kemasan media elektronik. Di antara parikan yang masih tersisa, terdapat parikan pelesetan, yang hanya main-main oleh dagelan ludruk, dan parikan serius, sebagai media iklan resmi layanan masyarakat oleh kepolisian, parpol, perusahaan, dan media massa, serta sebagai kritik sosial terhadap ketimpangan keadaan dan kesewenangan penguasa, juga oleh dagelan ludruk.

Abstract:
Parikan as oral literature is marginalized from its society in East Java and Central Java because the more rarely of habitat it emerges (ludruk, tayub, etc); the abundance of popular programs in TV electronic media; the vanishing satirical culture; the abolition of prostitution locality; the lesser of the amount of herbs seller in traditional market and vendors on layar tancap; the diminishing of the culture of cangkrukan/jagongan. Fortunately, yet there are two communities keeping on conserve parikan, they are pesantren community, which keeps parikan as the product of primary orality, and Javanese villagers and also Javanese urban community who conserve parikan as the product of secondary orality in electonic media packaging. Among the rest of parikan, there are plesetan parikan, merely for jokes which come from ludruk comedians, and serious parikan, as the official advertising media of public service by police department, politic parties, companies, and mass media, also as the social critique by ludruk comedians towards social injustice and despotism of public officers.

Key Words: oral literature; revitalization; secondary orality; social critique; marginalization

Keywords


sastra lisan; revitalisasi; kelisanan sekunder; kritik sosial; marginalisasi

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.24257/atavisme.v13i2.130.187-200

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